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ranimate.c

#ifndef lint
static const char RCSid[] = "$Id: ranimate.c,v 2.52 2006/04/18 04:30:35 greg Exp $";
#endif
/*
 * Radiance animation control program
 *
 * The main difference between this program and ranimove is that
 * we have many optimizations here for camera motion in static
 * environments, calling rpict and pinterp on multiple processors,
 * where ranimove puts its emphasis on object motion, and does
 * not use any external programs for image generation.
 *
 * See the ranimate(1) man page for further details.
 */

#include "copyright.h"

#include <stdio.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <signal.h>

#include "platform.h"
#include "rtprocess.h"
#include "paths.h"
#include "standard.h"
#include "view.h"
#include "vars.h"
#include "netproc.h"
                        /* default blur samples */
#ifndef DEF_NBLUR
#define DEF_NBLUR 5
#endif
                        /* default remote shell */
#ifndef REMSH
#define REMSH           "ssh"
#endif
                        /* input variables (alphabetical by name) */
#define ANIMATE         0           /* animation command */
#define ARCHIVE         1           /* archiving command */
#define BASENAME  2           /* output image base name */
#define DBLUR           3           /* depth of field blur */
#define DIRECTORY 4           /* working (sub)directory */
#define DISKSPACE 5           /* how much disk space to use */
#define END       6           /* ending frame number */
#define EXPOSURE  7           /* how to compute exposure */
#define HOST            8           /* rendering host machine */
#define INTERP          9           /* # frames to interpolate */
#define MBLUR           10          /* motion blur parameters */
#define NEXTANIM  11          /* next animation file */
#define OCTREE          12          /* octree file name */
#define OVERSAMP  13          /* # times to oversample image */
#define PFILT           14          /* pfilt options */
#define PINTERP         15          /* pinterp options */
#define RENDER          16          /* rendering options */
#define RESOLUTION      17          /* desired final resolution */
#define RIF       18          /* rad input file */
#define RSH       19          /* remote shell script or program */
#define RTRACE          20          /* use rtrace with pinterp? */
#define START           21          /* starting frame number */
#define TRANSFER  22          /* frame transfer command */
#define VIEWFILE  23          /* animation frame views */

int   NVARS = 24;       /* total number of variables */

VARIABLE    vv[] = {          /* variable-value pairs */
      {"ANIMATE", 2,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"ARCHIVE", 2,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"BASENAME",      3,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"DBLUR",   2,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"DIRECTORY",     3,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"DISKSPACE",     3,    0,    NULL, fltvalue},
      {"END",           2,    0,    NULL, intvalue},
      {"EXPOSURE",      3,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"host",    4,    0,    NULL, NULL},
      {"INTERPOLATE",   3,    0,    NULL, intvalue},
      {"MBLUR",   2,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"NEXTANIM",      3,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"OCTREE",  3,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"OVERSAMPLE",    2,    0,    NULL, fltvalue},
      {"pfilt",   2,    0,    NULL, catvalues},
      {"pinterp", 2,    0,    NULL, catvalues},
      {"render",  3,    0,    NULL, catvalues},
      {"RESOLUTION",    3,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"RIF",           3,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"RSH",           3,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"RTRACE",  2,    0,    NULL, boolvalue},
      {"START",   2,    0,    NULL, intvalue},
      {"TRANSFER",      2,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
      {"VIEWFILE",      2,    0,    NULL, onevalue},
};

#define SFNAME    "STATUS"          /* status file name */

struct {
      char  host[64];         /* control host name */
      RT_PID      pid;              /* control process id */
      char  cfname[128];            /* control file name */
      int   rnext;                  /* next frame to render */
      int   fnext;                  /* next frame to filter */
      int   tnext;                  /* next frame to transfer */
}     astat;                  /* animation status */

char  *progname;        /* our program name */
char  *cfname;          /* our control file name */

int   nowarn = 0;       /* turn warnings off? */
int   silent = 0;       /* silent mode? */
int   noaction = 0;           /* take no action? */

char  *remsh;                 /* remote shell program/script */
char  rendopt[2048];          /* rendering options */
char  rresopt[32];            /* rendering resolution options */
char  fresopt[32];            /* filter resolution options */
int   pfiltalways;            /* always use pfilt? */

char  arcargs[10240];         /* files to archive */
char  *arcfirst, *arcnext;    /* pointers to first and next argument */

struct pslot {
      RT_PID      pid;              /* process ID (0 if empty) */
      int   fout;             /* output frame number */
      int   (*rcvf)();        /* recover function */
}     *pslot;                 /* process slots */
int   npslots;          /* number of process slots */

#define phostname(ps)   ((ps)->hostname[0] ? (ps)->hostname : astat.host)
PSERVER     *lastpserver;           /* last process server with error */

static struct pslot * findpslot(RT_PID pid);
static void checkdir(void);
static VIEW * getview(int n);

static char * dirfile(char *df, register char *path);
static char * getexp(int n);
static int getblur(double *mbf, double *dbf);
static int getastat(void);
static void getradfile(char *rfargs);
static void badvalue(int vc);
static int rmfile(char *fn);
static int runcom(char *cs);
static int pruncom(char *com, char *ppins, int maxcopies);
static void bwait(int ncoms);
static RT_PID bruncom(char *com, int fout, int (*rf)());
static int serverdown(void);
static pscompfunc donecom;
static int countviews(void);
static int dofilt(int frame, int rvr);
static void archive(void);
static int frecover(int frame);
static int recover(int frame);
static void sethosts(void);
static void walkwait(int first, int last, char *vfn);
static void animrend(int frame, VIEW *vp);
static void transferframes(void);
static void filterframes(void);
static void renderframes(int nframes);
static void animate(void);
static void setdefaults(void);
static void putastat(void);


int
main(
      int   argc,
      char  *argv[]
)
{
      int   explicate = 0;
      int   i;

      progname = argv[0];                 /* get arguments */
      for (i = 1; i < argc && argv[i][0] == '-'; i++)
            switch (argv[i][1]) {
            case 'e':               /* print variables */
                  explicate++;
                  break;
            case 'w':               /* turn off warnings */
                  nowarn++;
                  break;
            case 's':               /* silent mode */
                  silent++;
                  break;
            case 'n':               /* take no action */
                  noaction++;
                  break;
            default:
                  goto userr;
            }
      if (i != argc-1)
            goto userr;
      cfname = argv[i];
                                    /* load variables */
      loadvars(cfname);
                                    /* check variables */
      checkvalues();
                                    /* did we get DIRECTORY? */
      checkdir();
                                    /* check status */
      if (getastat() < 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: exiting\n", progname);
            quit(1);
      }
                                    /* pfilt always if options given */
      pfiltalways = vdef(PFILT);
                                    /* load RIF if any */
      if (vdef(RIF))
            getradfile(vval(RIF));
                                    /* set defaults */
      setdefaults();
                                    /* print variables */
      if (explicate)
            printvars(stdout);
                                    /* set up process servers */
      sethosts();
                                    /* run animation */
      animate();
                                    /* all done */
      if (vdef(NEXTANIM)) {
            char  *fullp;
            argv[i] = vval(NEXTANIM);     /* just change input file */
            if (!silent)
                  printargs(argc, argv, stdout);
            fflush(stdout);
            if ((fullp = getpath(argv[0],getenv("PATH"),X_OK)) == NULL)
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s: command not found\n", argv[0]);
            else
                  execv(fullp, argv);
            quit(1);
      }
      quit(0);
      return(0); /* pro forma return */
userr:
      fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s [-s][-n][-w][-e] anim_file\n", progname);
      quit(1);
      return 1; /* pro forma return */
}


static int
getastat(void)                /* check/set animation status */
{
      char  sfname[256];
      FILE  *fp;

      sprintf(sfname, "%s/%s", vval(DIRECTORY), SFNAME);
      if ((fp = fopen(sfname, "r")) == NULL) {
            if (errno != ENOENT) {
                  perror(sfname);
                  return(-1);
            }
            astat.rnext = astat.fnext = astat.tnext = 0;
            goto setours;
      }
      if (fscanf(fp, "Control host: %s\n", astat.host) != 1)
            goto fmterr;
      if (fscanf(fp, "Control PID: %d\n", &astat.pid) != 1)
            goto fmterr;
      if (fscanf(fp, "Control file: %s\n", astat.cfname) != 1)
            goto fmterr;
      if (fscanf(fp, "Next render: %d\n", &astat.rnext) != 1)
            goto fmterr;
      if (fscanf(fp, "Next filter: %d\n", &astat.fnext) != 1)
            goto fmterr;
      if (fscanf(fp, "Next transfer: %d\n", &astat.tnext) != 1)
            goto fmterr;
      fclose(fp);
      if (astat.pid != 0) {               /* thinks it's still running */
            if (strcmp(myhostname(), astat.host)) {
                  fprintf(stderr,
                  "%s: process %d may still be running on host %s\n",
                              progname, astat.pid, astat.host);
                  return(-1);
            }
            if (kill(astat.pid, 0) != -1 || errno != ESRCH) {
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s: process %d is still running\n",
                              progname, astat.pid);
                  return(-1);
            }
            /* assume it is dead */
      }
      if (strcmp(cfname, astat.cfname) && astat.pid != 0) { /* other's */
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: unfinished job \"%s\"\n",
                        progname, astat.cfname);
            return(-1);
      }
                                    /* check control file mods. */
      if (!nowarn && fdate(cfname) > fdate(sfname))
            fprintf(stderr,
                  "%s: warning - control file modified since last run\n",
                        progname);
setours:                            /* set our values */
      strcpy(astat.host, myhostname());
      astat.pid = getpid();
      strcpy(astat.cfname, cfname);
      return(0);
fmterr:
      fprintf(stderr, "%s: format error in status file \"%s\"\n",
                  progname, sfname);
      fclose(fp);
      return(-1);
}


static void
putastat(void)                /* put out current status */
{
      char  buf[256];
      FILE  *fp;

      if (noaction)
            return;
      sprintf(buf, "%s/%s", vval(DIRECTORY), SFNAME);
      if ((fp = fopen(buf, "w")) == NULL) {
            perror(buf);
            quit(1);
      }
      fprintf(fp, "Control host: %s\n", astat.host);
      fprintf(fp, "Control PID: %d\n", astat.pid);
      fprintf(fp, "Control file: %s\n", astat.cfname);
      fprintf(fp, "Next render: %d\n", astat.rnext);
      fprintf(fp, "Next filter: %d\n", astat.fnext);
      fprintf(fp, "Next transfer: %d\n", astat.tnext);
      fclose(fp);
}


static void
checkdir(void)                /* make sure we have our directory */
{
      struct stat stb;

      if (!vdef(DIRECTORY)) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s undefined\n",
                        progname, vnam(DIRECTORY));
            quit(1);
      }
      if (stat(vval(DIRECTORY), &stb) == -1) {
            if (errno == ENOENT && mkdir(vval(DIRECTORY), 0777) == 0)
                  return;
            perror(vval(DIRECTORY));
            quit(1);
      }
      if (!(stb.st_mode & S_IFDIR)) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: not a directory\n", vval(DIRECTORY));
            quit(1);
      }
}


static void
setdefaults(void)             /* set default values */
{
      extern char *atos();
      int   decades;
      char  buf[256];

      if (vdef(ANIMATE)) {
            vval(OCTREE) = NULL;
            vdef(OCTREE) = 0;
      } else if (!vdef(OCTREE)) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: either %s or %s must be defined\n",
                        progname, vnam(OCTREE), vnam(ANIMATE));
            quit(1);
      }
      if (!vdef(VIEWFILE)) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s undefined\n", progname, vnam(VIEWFILE));
            quit(1);
      }
      if (!vdef(HOST)) {
            vval(HOST) = LHOSTNAME;
            vdef(HOST)++;
      }
      if (!vdef(START)) {
            vval(START) = "1";
            vdef(START)++;
      }
      if (!vdef(END)) {
            sprintf(buf, "%d", countviews()+vint(START)-1);
            vval(END) = savqstr(buf);
            vdef(END)++;
      }
      if (vint(END) < vint(START)) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: ending frame less than starting frame\n",
                        progname);
            quit(1);
      }
      if (!vdef(BASENAME)) {
            decades = (int)log10((double)vint(END)) + 1;
            if (decades < 3) decades = 3;
            sprintf(buf, "%s/frame%%0%dd", vval(DIRECTORY), decades);
            vval(BASENAME) = savqstr(buf);
            vdef(BASENAME)++;
      }
      if (!vdef(RESOLUTION)) {
            vval(RESOLUTION) = "640";
            vdef(RESOLUTION)++;
      }
      if (!vdef(OVERSAMP)) {
            vval(OVERSAMP) = "2";
            vdef(OVERSAMP)++;
      }
      if (!vdef(INTERP)) {
            vval(INTERP) = "0";
            vdef(INTERP)++;
      }
      if (!vdef(MBLUR)) {
            vval(MBLUR) = "0";
            vdef(MBLUR)++;
      }
      if (!vdef(RTRACE)) {
            vval(RTRACE) = "F";
            vdef(RTRACE)++;
      }
      if (!vdef(DISKSPACE)) {
            if (!nowarn)
                  fprintf(stderr,
            "%s: warning - no %s setting, assuming 100 Mbytes available\n",
                              progname, vnam(DISKSPACE));
            vval(DISKSPACE) = "100";
            vdef(DISKSPACE)++;
      }
      if (!vdef(RSH)) {
            vval(RSH) = REMSH;
            vdef(RSH)++;
      }
                        /* locate remote shell program */
      atos(buf, sizeof(buf), vval(RSH));
      if ((remsh = getpath(buf, getenv("PATH"), X_OK)) != NULL)
            remsh = savqstr(remsh);
      else
            remsh = vval(RSH);      /* will generate error if used */

                        /* append rendering options */
      if (vdef(RENDER))
            sprintf(rendopt+strlen(rendopt), " %s", vval(RENDER));
}


static void
sethosts(void)                /* set up process servers */
{
      extern char *iskip();
      char  buf[256], *dir, *uname;
      int   np;
      register char     *cp;
      int   i;

      npslots = 0;
      if (noaction)
            return;
      for (i = 0; i < vdef(HOST); i++) {  /* add each host */
            dir = uname = NULL;
            np = 1;
            strcpy(cp=buf, nvalue(HOST, i));    /* copy to buffer */
            cp = sskip(cp);                     /* skip host name */
            while (isspace(*cp))
                  *cp++ = '\0';
            if (*cp) {                    /* has # processes? */
                  np = atoi(cp);
                  if ((cp = iskip(cp)) == NULL || (*cp && !isspace(*cp)))
                        badvalue(HOST);
                  while (isspace(*cp))
                        cp++;
                  if (*cp) {              /* has directory? */
                        dir = cp;
                        cp = sskip(cp);               /* skip dir. */
                        while (isspace(*cp))
                              *cp++ = '\0';
                        if (*cp) {              /* has user? */
                              uname = cp;
                              if (*sskip(cp))
                                    badvalue(HOST);
                        }
                  }
            }
            if (addpserver(buf, dir, uname, np) == NULL) {
                  if (!nowarn)
                        fprintf(stderr,
                              "%s: cannot execute on host \"%s\"\n",
                                    progname, buf);
            } else
                  npslots += np;
      }
      if (npslots == 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: no working process servers\n", progname);
            quit(1);
      }
      pslot = (struct pslot *)calloc(npslots, sizeof(struct pslot));
      if (pslot == NULL) {
            perror("malloc");
            quit(1);
      }
}

static void
getradfile(char *rfargs)            /* run rad and get needed variables */
{
      static short      mvar[] = {OCTREE,PFILT,RESOLUTION,EXPOSURE,-1};
      char  combuf[256];
      register int      i;
      register char     *cp;
      char  *pippt = NULL;
                              /* create rad command */
      sprintf(rendopt, " @%s/render.opt", vval(DIRECTORY));
      sprintf(combuf,
      "rad -v 0 -s -e -w %s OPTFILE=%s | egrep '^[ \t]*(NOMATCH",
                  rfargs, rendopt+2);
      cp = combuf;
      while (*cp) {
            if (*cp == '|') pippt = cp;
            cp++;
      }                       /* match unset variables */
      for (i = 0; mvar[i] >= 0; i++)
            if (!vdef(mvar[i])) {
                  *cp++ = '|';
                  strcpy(cp, vnam(mvar[i]));
                  while (*cp) cp++;
                  pippt = NULL;
            }
      if (pippt != NULL)
            strcpy(pippt, "> " NULL_DEVICE);    /* nothing to match */
      else {
            sprintf(cp, ")[ \t]*=' > %s/radset.var", vval(DIRECTORY));
            cp += 11;         /* point to file name */
      }
      system(combuf);               /* ignore exit code */
      if (pippt == NULL) {          /* load variables and remove file */
            loadvars(cp);
            unlink(cp);
      }
}


static void
animate(void)                 /* run animation */
{
      int   xres, yres;
      float pa, mult;
      int   frames_batch;
      register int      i;
      double      d1, d2;
                              /* compute rpict resolution */
      i = sscanf(vval(RESOLUTION), "%d %d %f", &xres, &yres, &pa);
      mult = vflt(OVERSAMP);
      if (i == 3) {
            sprintf(rresopt, "-x %d -y %d -pa %.3f", (int)(mult*xres),
                        (int)(mult*yres), pa);
            sprintf(fresopt, "-x %d -y %d -pa %.3f", xres, yres, pa);
      } else if (i) {
            if (i == 1) yres = xres;
            sprintf(rresopt, "-x %d -y %d", (int)(mult*xres),
                        (int)(mult*yres));
            sprintf(fresopt, "-x %d -y %d -pa 1", xres, yres);
      } else
            badvalue(RESOLUTION);
                              /* consistency checks */
      if (vdef(ANIMATE)) {
            if (vint(INTERP)) {
                  if (!nowarn)
                        fprintf(stderr,
                              "%s: resetting %s=0 for animation\n",
                                    progname, vnam(INTERP));
                  vval(INTERP) = "0";
            }
            if (strcmp(vval(MBLUR),"0")) {      /* can't handle this */
                  if (!nowarn)
                        fprintf(stderr,
                              "%s: resetting %s=0 for animation\n",
                                    progname, vnam(MBLUR));
                  vval(MBLUR) = "0";
            }
      }
                              /* figure # frames per batch */
      d1 = mult*xres*mult*yres*4;         /* space for orig. picture */
      if ((i=vint(INTERP)) || getblur(NULL, NULL) > 1)
            d1 += mult*xres*mult*yres*sizeof(float);  /* Z-buffer */
      d2 = xres*yres*4;             /* space for final picture */
      frames_batch = (i+1)*(vflt(DISKSPACE)*1048576.-d1)/(d1+i*d2);
      if (frames_batch < i+2) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: insufficient disk space allocated\n",
                        progname);
            quit(1);
      }
                              /* initialize archive argument list */
      i = vdef(ARCHIVE) ? strlen(vval(ARCHIVE))+132 : 132;
      arcnext = arcfirst = arcargs + i;
                              /* initialize status file */
      if (astat.rnext == 0)
            astat.rnext = astat.fnext = astat.tnext = vint(START);
      putastat();
                              /* render in batches */
      while (astat.tnext <= vint(END)) {
            renderframes(frames_batch);
            filterframes();
            transferframes();
      }
                              /* mark status as finished */
      astat.pid = 0;
      putastat();
                              /* close open files */
      getview(0);
      getexp(0);
}


static void
renderframes(int nframes)           /* render next nframes frames */
{
      static char vendbuf[16];
      VIEW  *vp;
      FILE  *fp = NULL;
      char  vfname[128];
      int   lastframe;
      register int      i;

      if (astat.tnext < astat.rnext)      /* other work to do first */
            return;
                              /* create batch view file */
      if (!vdef(ANIMATE)) {
            sprintf(vfname, "%s/anim.vf", vval(DIRECTORY));
            if ((fp = fopen(vfname, "w")) == NULL) {
                  perror(vfname);
                  quit(1);
            }
      }
                              /* bound batch properly */
      lastframe = astat.rnext + nframes - 1;
      if ((lastframe-1) % (vint(INTERP)+1))     /* need even interval */
            lastframe += vint(INTERP)+1 - ((lastframe-1)%(vint(INTERP)+1));
      if (lastframe > vint(END))          /* check for end */
            lastframe = vint(END);
                              /* render each view */
      for (i = astat.rnext; i <= lastframe; i++) {
            if ((vp = getview(i)) == NULL) {
                  if (!nowarn)
                        fprintf(stderr,
                        "%s: ran out of views before last frame\n",
                              progname);
                  sprintf(vval(END)=vendbuf, "%d", i-1);
                  lastframe = i - 1;
                  break;
            }
            if (vdef(ANIMATE))            /* animate frame */
                  animrend(i, vp);
            else {                        /* else record it */
                  fputs(VIEWSTR, fp);
                  fprintview(vp, fp);
                  putc('\n', fp);
            }
      }
      if (vdef(ANIMATE))            /* wait for renderings to finish */
            bwait(0);
      else {                        /* else if walk-through */
            fclose(fp);       /* close view file */
            walkwait(astat.rnext, lastframe, vfname); /* walk it */
            unlink(vfname);         /* remove view file */
      }
      astat.rnext = i;        /* update status */
      putastat();
}


static void
filterframes(void)                        /* catch up with filtering */
{
      register int      i;

      if (astat.tnext < astat.fnext)      /* other work to do first */
            return;
                              /* filter each view */
      for (i = astat.fnext; i < astat.rnext; i++)
            dofilt(i, 0);

      bwait(0);               /* wait for filter processes */
      archive();              /* archive originals */
      astat.fnext = i;        /* update status */
      putastat();
}


static void
transferframes(void)                /* catch up with picture transfers */
{
      char  combuf[10240], *fbase;
      register char     *cp;
      register int      i;

      if (astat.tnext >= astat.fnext)     /* nothing to do, yet */
            return;
      if (!vdef(TRANSFER)) {        /* no transfer function -- leave 'em */
            astat.tnext = astat.fnext;
            putastat();       /* update status */
            return;
      }
      strcpy(combuf, "cd ");        /* start transfer command */
      fbase = dirfile(cp = combuf+3, vval(BASENAME));
      if (*cp) {
            while (*++cp) ;
            *cp++ = ';'; *cp++ = ' ';
      } else
            cp = combuf;
      strcpy(cp, vval(TRANSFER));
      while (*cp) cp++;
                              /* make argument list */
      for (i = astat.tnext; i < astat.fnext; i++) {
            *cp++ = ' ';
            sprintf(cp, fbase, i);
            while (*cp) cp++;
            strcpy(cp, ".pic");
            cp += 4;
      }
      if (runcom(combuf)) {         /* transfer frames */
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: error running transfer command\n",
                        progname);
            quit(1);
      }
      astat.tnext = i;        /* update status */
      putastat();
}


static void
animrend(               /* start animation frame */
int   frame,
VIEW  *vp
)
{
      char  combuf[2048];
      char  fname[128];

      sprintf(fname, vval(BASENAME), frame);
      strcat(fname, ".unf");
      if (access(fname, F_OK) == 0)
            return;
      sprintf(combuf, "%s %d | rpict%s%s -w0 %s > %s", vval(ANIMATE), frame,
                  rendopt, viewopt(vp), rresopt, fname);
      bruncom(combuf, frame, recover);    /* run in background */
}


static void
walkwait(         /* walk-through frames */
int   first,
int last,
char  *vfn
)
{
      double      mblurf, dblurf;
      int   nblur = getblur(&mblurf, &dblurf);
      char  combuf[2048];
      register char     *inspoint;
      register int      i;

      if (!noaction && vint(INTERP))            /* create dummy frames */
            for (i = first; i <= last; i++)
                  if (i < vint(END) && (i-1) % (vint(INTERP)+1)) {
                        sprintf(combuf, vval(BASENAME), i);
                        strcat(combuf, ".unf");
                        close(open(combuf, O_RDONLY|O_CREAT, 0666));
                  }
                              /* create command */
      sprintf(combuf, "rpict%s%s -w0", rendopt,
                  viewopt(getview(first>1 ? first-1 : 1)));
      inspoint = combuf;
      while (*inspoint) inspoint++;
      if (nblur) {
            sprintf(inspoint, " -pm %.3f", mblurf/nblur);
            while (*inspoint) inspoint++;
            sprintf(inspoint, " -pd %.3f", dblurf/nblur);
            while (*inspoint) inspoint++;
      }
      if (nblur > 1 || vint(INTERP)) {
            sprintf(inspoint, " -z %s.zbf", vval(BASENAME));
            while (*inspoint) inspoint++;
      }
      sprintf(inspoint, " -o %s.unf %s -S %d",
                  vval(BASENAME), rresopt, first);
      while (*inspoint) inspoint++;
      sprintf(inspoint, " %s < %s", vval(OCTREE), vfn);
                              /* run in parallel */
      i = (last-first+1)/(vint(INTERP)+1);
      if (i < 1) i = 1;
      if (pruncom(combuf, inspoint, i)) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: error rendering frames %d through %d\n",
                        progname, first, last);
            quit(1);
      }
      if (!noaction && vint(INTERP))            /* remove dummy frames */
            for (i = first; i <= last; i++)
                  if (i < vint(END) && (i-1) % (vint(INTERP)+1)) {
                        sprintf(combuf, vval(BASENAME), i);
                        strcat(combuf, ".unf");
                        unlink(combuf);
                  }
}


static int
recover(int frame)                  /* recover the specified frame */
{
      static int  *rfrm;            /* list of recovered frames */
      static int  nrfrms = 0;
      double      mblurf, dblurf;
      int   nblur = getblur(&mblurf, &dblurf);
      char  combuf[2048];
      char  fname[128];
      register char     *cp;
      register int      i;
                              /* check to see if recovered already */
      for (i = nrfrms; i--; )
            if (rfrm[i] == frame)
                  return(0);
                              /* build command */
      sprintf(fname, vval(BASENAME), frame);
      if (vdef(ANIMATE))
            sprintf(combuf, "%s %d | rpict%s -w0",
                        vval(ANIMATE), frame, rendopt);
      else
            sprintf(combuf, "rpict%s -w0", rendopt);
      cp = combuf;
      while (*cp) cp++;
      if (nblur) {
            sprintf(cp, " -pm %.3f", mblurf/nblur);
            while (*cp) cp++;
            sprintf(cp, " -pd %.3f", dblurf/nblur);
            while (*cp) cp++;
      }
      if (nblur > 1 || vint(INTERP)) {
            sprintf(cp, " -z %s.zbf", fname);
            while (*cp) cp++;
      }
      sprintf(cp, " -ro %s.unf", fname);
      while (*cp) cp++;
      if (!vdef(ANIMATE)) {
            *cp++ = ' ';
            strcpy(cp, vval(OCTREE));
      }
      if (runcom(combuf))           /* run command */
            return(1);
                              /* add frame to recovered list */
      if (nrfrms)
            rfrm = (int *)realloc((void *)rfrm, (nrfrms+1)*sizeof(int));
      else
            rfrm = (int *)malloc(sizeof(int));
      if (rfrm == NULL) {
            perror("malloc");
            quit(1);
      }
      rfrm[nrfrms++] = frame;
      return(0);
}


static int
frecover(int frame)                       /* recover filtered frame */
{
      if (dofilt(frame, 2) && dofilt(frame, 1))
            return(1);
      return(0);
}


static void
archive(void)                 /* archive and remove renderings */
{
#define RMCOML    (sizeof(rmcom)-1)
      static char rmcom[] = "rm -f";
      char  basedir[128];
      int   dlen, alen;
      register int      j;

      if (arcnext == arcfirst)
            return;                       /* nothing to do */
      dirfile(basedir, vval(BASENAME));
      dlen = strlen(basedir);
      if (vdef(ARCHIVE)) {                /* run archive command */
            alen = strlen(vval(ARCHIVE));
            if (dlen) {
                  j = alen + dlen + 5;
                  strncpy(arcfirst-j, "cd ", 3);
                  strncpy(arcfirst-j+3, basedir, dlen);
                  (arcfirst-j)[dlen+3] = ';'; (arcfirst-j)[dlen+4] = ' ';
            } else
                  j = alen;
            strncpy(arcfirst-alen, vval(ARCHIVE), alen);
            if (runcom(arcfirst-j)) {
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s: error running archive command\n",
                              progname);
                  quit(1);
            }
      }
      if (dlen) {
            j = RMCOML + dlen + 5;
            strncpy(arcfirst-j, "cd ", 3);
            strncpy(arcfirst-j+3, basedir, dlen);
            (arcfirst-j)[dlen+3] = ';'; (arcfirst-j)[dlen+4] = ' ';
      } else
            j = RMCOML;
                                    /* run remove command */
      strncpy(arcfirst-RMCOML, rmcom, RMCOML);
      runcom(arcfirst-j);
      arcnext = arcfirst;                 /* reset argument list */
#undef RMCOML
}


static int
dofilt(                       /* filter frame */
int   frame,
int   rvr
)
{
      static int  iter = 0;
      double      mblurf, dblurf;
      int   nblur = getblur(&mblurf, &dblurf);
      VIEW  *vp = getview(frame);
      char  *ep = getexp(frame);
      char  fnbefore[128], fnafter[128], *fbase;
      char  combuf[1024], fname0[128], fname1[128];
      int   usepinterp, usepfilt, nora_rgbe;
      int   frseq[2];
                                    /* check what is needed */
      if (vp == NULL) {
             fprintf(stderr,
                  "%s: unexpected error reading view for frame %d\n",
                                      progname, frame);
            quit(1);
      }
      usepinterp = (nblur > 1);
      usepfilt = pfiltalways | (ep==NULL);
      if (ep != NULL && !strcmp(ep, "1"))
            ep = "+0";
      nora_rgbe = strcmp(vval(OVERSAMP),"1") || ep==NULL ||
                  *ep != '+' || *ep != '-' || !isint(ep);
                                    /* compute rendered views */
      frseq[0] = frame - ((frame-1) % (vint(INTERP)+1));
      frseq[1] = frseq[0] + vint(INTERP) + 1;
      fbase = dirfile(NULL, vval(BASENAME));
      if (frseq[1] > vint(END))
            frseq[1] = vint(END);
      if (frseq[1] == frame) {                  /* pfilt only */
            frseq[0] = frseq[1];
            usepinterp = 0;               /* update what's needed */
            usepfilt |= nora_rgbe;
      } else if (frseq[0] == frame) {           /* no interpolation needed */
            if (!rvr && frame > 1+vint(INTERP)) {     /* archive previous */
                  if (arcnext - arcargs +
                              strlen(fbase) >= sizeof(arcargs)-8) {
                        fprintf(stderr,
"%s: too many filenames in archive command -- reduce %s variable\n",
                                    progname, vnam(DISKSPACE));
                        quit(1);
                  }
                  *arcnext++ = ' ';
                  sprintf(arcnext, fbase, frame-vint(INTERP)-1);
                  while (*arcnext) arcnext++;
                  strcpy(arcnext, ".unf");
                  arcnext += 4;
                  if (usepinterp || vint(INTERP)) {   /* and Z-buf */
                        *arcnext++ = ' ';
                        sprintf(arcnext, fbase, frame-vint(INTERP)-1);
                        while (*arcnext) arcnext++;
                        strcpy(arcnext, ".zbf");
                        arcnext += 4;
                  }
            }
            if (!usepinterp)        /* update what's needed */
                  usepfilt |= nora_rgbe;
      } else                              /* interpolation needed */
            usepinterp++;
      if (frseq[1] >= astat.rnext)        /* next batch unavailable */
            frseq[1] = frseq[0];
      sprintf(fnbefore, vval(BASENAME), frseq[0]);
      sprintf(fnafter, vval(BASENAME), frseq[1]);
      if (rvr == 1 && recover(frseq[0]))  /* recover before frame? */
            return(1);
                                    /* generate command */
      if (usepinterp) {             /* using pinterp */
            if (rvr == 2 && recover(frseq[1]))  /* recover after? */
                  return(1);
            if (nblur > 1) {        /* with pdmblur */
                  sprintf(fname0, "%s/vw0%c", vval(DIRECTORY),
                              'a'+(iter%26));
                  sprintf(fname1, "%s/vw1%c", vval(DIRECTORY),
                              'a'+(iter%26));
                  if (!noaction) {
                        FILE  *fp;        /* motion blurring */
                        if ((fp = fopen(fname0, "w")) == NULL) {
                              perror(fname0); quit(1);
                        }
                        fputs(VIEWSTR, fp);
                        fprintview(vp, fp);
                        putc('\n', fp); fclose(fp);
                        if ((vp = getview(frame+1)) == NULL) {
                              fprintf(stderr,
                  "%s: unexpected error reading view for frame %d\n",
                                          progname, frame+1);
                              quit(1);
                        }
                        if ((fp = fopen(fname1, "w")) == NULL) {
                              perror(fname1); quit(1);
                        }
                        fputs(VIEWSTR, fp);
                        fprintview(vp, fp);
                        putc('\n', fp); fclose(fp);
                  }
                  sprintf(combuf,
                  "(pmdblur %.3f %.3f %d %s %s; rm -f %s %s) | pinterp -B -a",
                              mblurf, dblurf, nblur,
                              fname0, fname1, fname0, fname1);
                  iter++;
            } else                        /* no blurring */
                  strcpy(combuf, "pinterp");
            strcat(combuf, viewopt(vp));
            if (vbool(RTRACE))
                  sprintf(combuf+strlen(combuf), " -ff -fr '%s -w0 %s'",
                              rendopt+1, vval(OCTREE));
            if (vdef(PINTERP))
                  sprintf(combuf+strlen(combuf), " %s", vval(PINTERP));
            if (usepfilt)
                  sprintf(combuf+strlen(combuf), " %s", rresopt);
            else
                  sprintf(combuf+strlen(combuf), " -a %s -e %s",
                              fresopt, ep);
            sprintf(combuf+strlen(combuf), " %s.unf %s.zbf",
                        fnbefore, fnbefore);
            if (frseq[1] != frseq[0])
                   sprintf(combuf+strlen(combuf), " %s.unf %s.zbf",
                              fnafter, fnafter);
            if (usepfilt) {               /* also pfilt */
                  if (vdef(PFILT))
                        sprintf(combuf+strlen(combuf), " | pfilt %s",
                                    vval(PFILT));
                  else
                        strcat(combuf, " | pfilt");
                  if (ep != NULL)
                        sprintf(combuf+strlen(combuf), " -1 -e %s %s",
                                    ep, fresopt);
                  else
                        sprintf(combuf+strlen(combuf), " %s", fresopt);
            }
      } else if (usepfilt) {              /* pfilt only */
            if (rvr == 2)
                  return(1);
            if (vdef(PFILT))
                  sprintf(combuf, "pfilt %s", vval(PFILT));
            else
                  strcpy(combuf, "pfilt");
            if (ep != NULL)
                  sprintf(combuf+strlen(combuf), " -1 -e %s %s %s.unf",
                        ep, fresopt, fnbefore);
            else
                  sprintf(combuf+strlen(combuf), " %s %s.unf",
                              fresopt, fnbefore);
      } else {                      /* else just check it */
            if (rvr == 2)
                  return(1);
            sprintf(combuf, "ra_rgbe -e %s -r %s.unf", ep, fnbefore);
      }
                                    /* output file name */
      sprintf(fname0, vval(BASENAME), frame);
      sprintf(combuf+strlen(combuf), " > %s.pic", fname0);
      if (rvr)                      /* in recovery */
            return(runcom(combuf));
      bruncom(combuf, frame, frecover);   /* else run in background */
      return(0);
}


static VIEW *
getview(int n)                /* get view number n */
{
      static FILE *viewfp = NULL;         /* view file pointer */
      static int  viewnum = 0;            /* current view number */
      static VIEW curview = STDVIEW;      /* current view */
      char  linebuf[256];

      if (n == 0) {                 /* signal to close file and clean up */
            if (viewfp != NULL) {
                  fclose(viewfp);
                  viewfp = NULL;
                  viewnum = 0;
                  curview = stdview;
            }
            return(NULL);
      }
      if (viewfp == NULL) {               /* open file */
            if ((viewfp = fopen(vval(VIEWFILE), "r")) == NULL) {
                  perror(vval(VIEWFILE));
                  quit(1);
            }
      } else if (n > 0 && n < viewnum) {  /* rewind file */
            if (viewnum == 1 && feof(viewfp))
                  return(&curview);       /* just one view */
            if (fseek(viewfp, 0L, 0) == EOF) {
                  perror(vval(VIEWFILE));
                  quit(1);
            }
            curview = stdview;
            viewnum = 0;
      }
      if (n < 0) {                        /* get next view */
            register int      c = getc(viewfp);
            if (c == EOF)
                  return((VIEW *)NULL);         /* that's it */
            ungetc(c, viewfp);
            n = viewnum + 1;
      }
      while (n > viewnum) {         /* scan to desired view */
            if (fgets(linebuf, sizeof(linebuf), viewfp) == NULL)
                  return(viewnum==1 ? &curview : (VIEW *)NULL);
            if (isview(linebuf) && sscanview(&curview, linebuf) > 0)
                  viewnum++;
      }
      return(&curview);       /* return it */
}


static int
countviews(void)              /* count views in view file */
{
      int   n;

      if (getview(n=1) == NULL)
            return(0);
      while (getview(-1) != NULL)
            n++;
      return(n);
}


static char *
getexp(int n)                 /* get exposure for nth frame */
{
      extern char *fskip();
      static char expval[32];
      static FILE *expfp = NULL;
      static long *exppos;
      static int  curfrm;
      register char     *cp;

      if (n == 0) {                       /* signal to close file */
            if (expfp != NULL) {
                  fclose(expfp);
                  free((void *)exppos);
                  expfp = NULL;
            }
            return(NULL);
      } else if (n > vint(END))           /* request past end (error?) */
            return(NULL);
      if (!vdef(EXPOSURE))                /* no setting (auto) */
            return(NULL);
      if (isflt(vval(EXPOSURE)))          /* always the same */
            return(vval(EXPOSURE));
      if (expfp == NULL) {                /* open exposure file */
            if ((expfp = fopen(vval(EXPOSURE), "r")) == NULL) {
                  fprintf(stderr,
                  "%s: cannot open exposure file \"%s\"\n",
                              progname, vval(EXPOSURE));
                  quit(1);
            }
            curfrm = vint(END) + 1;       /* init lookup tab. */
            exppos = (long *)malloc(curfrm*sizeof(long *));
            if (exppos == NULL) {
                  perror(progname);
                  quit(1);
            }
            while (curfrm--)
                  exppos[curfrm] = -1L;
            curfrm = 0;
      }
                                    /* find position in file */
      if (n-1 != curfrm && n != curfrm && exppos[n-1] >= 0 &&
                        fseek(expfp, exppos[curfrm=n-1], 0) == EOF) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: seek error on exposure file\n", progname);
            quit(1);
      }
      while (n > curfrm) {                /* read exposure */
            if (exppos[curfrm] < 0)
                  exppos[curfrm] = ftell(expfp);
            if (fgets(expval, sizeof(expval), expfp) == NULL) {
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s: too few exposures\n",
                              vval(EXPOSURE));
                  quit(1);
            }
            curfrm++;
            cp = fskip(expval);                 /* check format */
            if (cp != NULL)
                  while (isspace(*cp))
                        *cp++ = '\0';
            if (cp == NULL || *cp) {
                  fprintf(stderr,
                        "%s: exposure format error on line %d\n",
                              vval(EXPOSURE), curfrm);
                  quit(1);
            }
      }
      return(expval);                     /* return value */
}


static struct pslot *
findpslot(RT_PID pid)               /* find or allocate a process slot */
{
      register struct pslot   *psempty = NULL;
      register int      i;

      for (i = 0; i < npslots; i++) {           /* look for match */
            if (pslot[i].pid == pid)
                  return(pslot+i);
            if (psempty == NULL && pslot[i].pid == 0)
                  psempty = pslot+i;
      }
      return(psempty);        /* return emtpy slot (error if NULL) */
}


static int
donecom(          /* clean up after finished process */
      PSERVER     *ps,
      int   pn,
      int   status
)
{
      register NETPROC  *pp;
      register struct pslot   *psl;

      pp = ps->proc + pn;
      if (pp->elen) {               /* pass errors */
            if (ps->hostname[0])
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s: ", ps->hostname);
            fprintf(stderr, "Error output from: %s\n", pp->com);
            fputs(pp->errs, stderr);
            fflush(stderr);
            if (ps->hostname[0])
                  status = 1; /* because rsh doesn't return status */
      }
      lastpserver = NULL;
      psl = findpslot(pp->pid);     /* check for bruncom() slot */
      if (psl->pid) {
            if (status) {
                  if (psl->rcvf != NULL)  /* attempt recovery */
                        status = (*psl->rcvf)(psl->fout);
                  if (status) {
                        fprintf(stderr,
                              "%s: error rendering frame %d\n",
                                    progname, psl->fout);
                        quit(1);
                  }
                  lastpserver = ps;
            }
            psl->pid = 0;                 /* free process slot */
      } else if (status)
            lastpserver = ps;
      freestr(pp->com);       /* free command string */
      return(status);
}


static int
serverdown(void)              /* check status of last process server */
{
      if (lastpserver == NULL || !lastpserver->hostname[0])
            return(0);
      if (pserverOK(lastpserver))   /* server still up? */
            return(0);
      delpserver(lastpserver);      /* else delete it */
      if (pslist == NULL) {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: all process servers are down\n",
                        progname);
            quit(1);
      }
      return(1);
}


static RT_PID
bruncom(          /* run a command in the background */
char  *com,
int   fout,
int   (*rf)()
)
{
      RT_PID      pid;
      register struct pslot   *psl;

      if (noaction) {
            if (!silent)
                  printf("\t%s\n", com);  /* echo command */
            return(0);
      }
      com = savestr(com);           /* else start it when we can */
      while ((pid = startjob(NULL, com, donecom)) == -1)
            bwait(1);
      if (!silent) {                      /* echo command */
            PSERVER     *ps;
            RT_PID      psn = pid;
            ps = findjob(&psn);
            printf("\t%s\n", com);
            printf("\tProcess started on %s\n", phostname(ps));
            fflush(stdout);
      }
      psl = findpslot(pid);         /* record info. in appropriate slot */
      psl->pid = pid;
      psl->fout = fout;
      psl->rcvf = rf;
      return(pid);
}


static void
bwait(int ncoms)                    /* wait for batch job(s) to finish */
{
      int   status;

      if (noaction)
            return;
      while ((status = wait4job(NULL, -1)) != -1) {
            serverdown();           /* update server status */
            if (--ncoms == 0)
                  break;            /* done enough */
      }
}


static int
pruncom(    /* run a command in parallel over network */
char  *com,
char  *ppins,
int   maxcopies
)
{
      int   retstatus = 0;
      int   hostcopies;
      char  buf[10240], *com1, *s;
      int   status;
      int   pfd;
      register int      n;
      register PSERVER  *ps;

      if (!silent)
            printf("\t%s\n", com);  /* echo command */
      if (noaction)
            return(0);
      fflush(stdout);
                              /* start jobs on each server */
      for (ps = pslist; ps != NULL; ps = ps->next) {
            hostcopies = 0;
            if (maxcopies > 1 && ps->nprocs > 1 && ppins != NULL) {
                  strcpy(com1=buf, com);  /* build -PP command */
                  sprintf(com1+(ppins-com), " -PP %s/%s.persist",
                              vval(DIRECTORY), phostname(ps));
                  unlink(com1+(ppins-com)+5);
                  strcat(com1, ppins);
            } else
                  com1 = com;
            while (maxcopies > 0) {
                  s = savestr(com1);
                  if (startjob(ps, s, donecom) != -1) {
                        sleep(20);
                        hostcopies++;
                        maxcopies--;
                  } else {
                        freestr(s);
                        break;
                  }
            }
            if (!silent && hostcopies) {
                  if (hostcopies > 1)
                        printf("\t%d duplicate processes", hostcopies);
                  else
                        printf("\tProcess");
                  printf(" started on %s\n", phostname(ps));
                  fflush(stdout);
            }
      }
                              /* wait for jobs to finish */
      while ((status = wait4job(NULL, -1)) != -1)
            retstatus += status && !serverdown();
                              /* terminate parallel rpict's */
      for (ps = pslist; ps != NULL; ps = ps->next) {
            sprintf(buf, "%s/%s.persist", vval(DIRECTORY), phostname(ps));
            if ((pfd = open(buf, O_RDONLY)) >= 0) {
                  n = read(pfd, buf, sizeof(buf)-1);  /* get PID */
                  buf[n] = '\0';
                  close(pfd);
                  for (n = 0; buf[n] && !isspace(buf[n]); n++)
                        ;
                                                /* terminate */
                  sprintf(buf, "kill -ALRM %d", atoi(buf+n));
                  wait4job(ps, startjob(ps, buf, NULL));
            }
      }
      return(retstatus);
}


static int
runcom(char *cs)              /* run a command locally and wait for it */
{
      if (!silent)            /* echo it */
            printf("\t%s\n", cs);
      if (noaction)
            return(0);
      fflush(stdout);         /* flush output and pass to shell */
      return(system(cs));
}


static int
rmfile(char *fn)              /* remove a file */
{
      if (!silent)
#ifdef _WIN32
            printf("\tdel %s\n", fn);
#else
            printf("\trm -f %s\n", fn);
#endif
      if (noaction)
            return(0);
      return(unlink(fn));
}


static void
badvalue(int vc)              /* report bad variable value and exit */
{
      fprintf(stderr, "%s: bad value for variable '%s'\n",
                  progname, vnam(vc));
      quit(1);
}


static char *
dirfile(          /* separate path into directory and file */
char  *df,
register char     *path
)
{
      register int      i;
      int   psep;

      for (i = 0, psep = -1; path[i]; i++)
            if (path[i] == '/')
                  psep = i;
      if (df != NULL) {
            if (psep == 0) {
                  df[0] = '/';
                  df[1] = '\0';
            } else if (psep > 0) {
                  strncpy(df, path, psep);
                  df[psep] = '\0';
            } else
                  df[0] = '\0';
      }
      return(path+psep+1);
}


static int
getblur(double *mbf, double *dbf)   /* get # blur samples (and fraction) */
{
      double      mblurf, dblurf;
      int   nmblur, ndblur;
      char  *s;
                              /* get motion blur */
      if (!vdef(MBLUR) || (mblurf = atof(vval(MBLUR))) < 0.0)
            mblurf = 0.0;
      if (mbf != NULL)
            *mbf = mblurf;
      if (mblurf <= FTINY)
            nmblur = 0;
      else if (!*(s = sskip(vval(MBLUR))))
            nmblur = DEF_NBLUR;
      else if ((nmblur = atoi(s)) <= 0)
            nmblur = 1;
                              /* get depth-of-field blur */
      if (!vdef(DBLUR) || (dblurf = atof(vval(DBLUR))) < 0.0)
            dblurf = 0.0;
      if (dbf != NULL)
            *dbf = dblurf;
      if (dblurf <= FTINY)
            ndblur = 0;
      else if (!*(s = sskip(vval(DBLUR))))
            ndblur = DEF_NBLUR;
      else if ((ndblur = atoi(s)) <= 0)
            ndblur = 1;
      if ((nmblur == 1) & (ndblur == 1))
            return(1);
                              /* return combined samples */
      return(nmblur + ndblur);
}

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